Fifty-two discoveries from the BiblioPhilly project, No. 26/52
A guest post by University of Pennsylvania Manuscripts Cataloging Librarian, Amey Hutchins
Carta executoria, Philadelphia, Free Library of Philadelphia, Lewis E 241, fols. 1v–2r (large illuminated initial D, coat of arms; facing text page)
As Richard L. Kagan explains in Lawsuits and Litigants in Castile,[efn_note]Lawsuits and Litigants in Castile, 1500-1700 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981).[/efn_note] minors (under the age of 25) and women of any age were not allowed to litigate on their own behalf in the Castilian courts. The exception to the rule about women was that widows were allowed to bring lawsuits, which meant that they could protect their dowries from creditors of their dead husbands. One of the cartas executorias at the Free Library of Philadelphia, Lewis E 241, records an example of a widow filing a pleito de hidalguía, the lawsuit by a private individual to prove a claim of nobility. Her name first appears as “Marí Lopez de Colmenares muger de Pedro de Matienzo ya defunto vezína de la dicha vílla de Carrión” (Marí Lopez de Colmenares, wife of Pedro de Matienzo already deceased, resident of the town of Carrión, fol. 2r).
This carta executoria was probably quite plain in its original form, with the floral borders added later. For comparison, simple pairs of diagonal lines like these in the upper margin of another, less extravagant, carta executoria, UPenn Ms. Codex 74:
Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, UPenn Ms. Codex 74, fol. 6v
…are visible under the borders in Lewis E 241:
Lewis E 241, fol. 17r
…and the notarial marks like these at the bottom of each page in UPenn Ms. Codex 74:
UPenn Ms. Codex 74, fol. 6v
…have been roughly avoided by the later decoration in Lewis E 241:
Lewis E 241, fol. 17r
At the end of the text of the carta executoria, the later decoration does not fill the lower margin, in order not to cover the title-like summary at the end, where the name of Marí Lopez de Colmenares appears again, slightly damaged:
Lewis E 241, fol. 28r
The full-page illuminations in Lewis E 241 are at the end of the manuscript, not the beginning, and this departure from the usual order, together with the later date of the decoration, makes the shadowy double portrait at the end of the manuscript (fol. 30r) a bit enigmatic.
Lewis E 241, fols. 29v–30r
Lewis E 241, fol. 30r (detail)
Is it a retrospective portrait of Marí and Pedro? A portrait of their son García de Matienzo (named in a later addition on fol. 28v), with his wife? Or another member of the same family?